Google’s VR Platform

True virtual reality (VR), not simply Cardboard that puts virtual reality on your smartphone device, might be an important part of your next device compatible with Android.Google’s Android VR is officially called Daydream that will bring your much-loved apps to virtual reality. This VR platform is just coming this year, expected in November 2016. It will be launched with Android N.

The VR platform is to be built-into the Android OP starting with the launch of N. This platform comprises both software and hardware specs, which is called compatible phones “Daydream-Ready”.

Aspirations of Google’s VR platform are quite close to what Samsung has already launched its Gear VR headset.

The current article is all about Google’s VR platform, Daydream, and I am going to discuss and share five crucial information related to this forthcoming platform, which is necesary to know.

  1. It’s named Daydream

Google will soon its VR platform and it is calling the VR feature and platform “Daydream” of its Android N.So, don’t mix the Daydream moniker with this VR platform Google launched a few years ago as the Android screensaver feature.

Daydream is built-in on your Android N, so you don’t need to install it as an additional app. If you place your phone into a Daydream comfortable headset, “VR mode” startsautomatically by turning your device into the Daydream’s brains.

In case your mobile device is locked in and headset is on, you have the option to move your head and browse the Daydream home app launcher. This platform enables you to easily access apps or games you have already installed on your device. This also lets you to visit the Play Store with the aim of finding new and innovative apps.

  1. What you’ll need by using Daydream

If you use Daydream the following are requirements:

  • You need a mobile handset which must be compatible with your Android N. Although there is no compatible phone in the market as yet, very soon flasghip Nexus phone by Google will be launched that will support it.
  • You need a compatible Daydream headset. Although the headsets arenot in the market, Google shared its guidelines about hardware you can review at Google I/O.
  • You need a Daydream controller, an intuitive controller for rich VR experiences,through which you will make your purchase with the Daydream headset.

Google will soon launch its own Daydream headset controller this year for the Nexus 6P. Besides this headset, Google is also facilitating its hardware partners by providing them with absolute design guidelines for the Daydream headset and Daydream controller. Now, manufacturerswill be able to use the reference design to generatetheir own.

Google’s each headsetwill require a Daydream controller.

  1. There are strict hardware requirements

Although Android hardware partners enjoy broad freedom when it comes to building an Android device, strict requirements will be imposed by Google on manufacturers that manufacture devices to meet the requirements of Daydream compatible devices.

I don’t know the precise requirements set by the Google, but it is stated by the Google’s Android developer website “this preview brings motion-to-photon latency on the Nexus 6P down to less than 20ms, which is “the speed necessary to establish immersion for the user to feel like they are actually in another place”. It will further assist cut down on motion condition, so it can be said this is almost certainly the yardstickthat would be set by Google for devices compatible with Daydream.According to Sean Hollister, Senior Editor at CNET, ifperformance requirements set by Google are not met by a device, it is possible that the VR app would not open when you place your phone in the headset.

As stated by Google, the mobile phone devices made by HTC, Huawei, Samsung, LG, ZTE, Alcatel, Xiaomi and Asus, all have the potential to run with Daydream.

  1. Existing app partners of Google

Google has already app partners, which include Google Photos, YouTube, Play Store, Play Movies, and Street View, and all of them will have a VR app. Besides Google, other companies including NBA, CNN, Netflix, Hulu, MLB, and the Wall Street Journal are all the Google’s app partners.

  1. Finallythe cost

As far as the cost set by Google is concerned, the CNET was told by the company it would set the headsets’ price just like Gear VR kit offered by Samsung’s, Gear VR headset at $100 and Galaxy S7 at $800.

The Bottom Line

In this article I shared some crucial information about Google’s Daydream implementation of Android N, but there is much more to learn about. Google has also organized a gathering as session at its developer event in May 2016 dedicated to Android VR platform, where the company listened for new and innovative information.

Google’s Daydream as VR platform was announced at Google I/O 2016 and will soon be launched in Autumn and it is highly expected that in the coming November.

Younus Khan:Pakistan’s Finest

Pakistan, has over the years produced so many great names in the Cricket Arena. It has been the finest young and raw talent producer for the game. In every era there have been some finest Pace bowlers who could even swing the ball, bowl in-dippers, away swingers, reverse swinging yorkers, toe-crushers, pacy bouncers. Also their have been great batting ambassadors from the country. From Hanif Muhammad to Zaheer Abbas, Majid Khan to Javed Miandad, Inzamam ul Haq to Muhammad Yousuf and Younus Khan. these batting ambassadors have done so much for the game.

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Younus Khan sharing a light moment with the Aussies in the deserts of UAE

The modern day cricketing giant in Pakistan is the veteran Test batsmen Younus Khan who became recently the leading centurion and the leading all time test runs scorer for the country. Younus’ role in the team is of a fighter, who never kneels in front of the opponent. Stands tall, and sweeps you until you bowl him a half tracker and that gets square driven, or cut for four.

Younus Khan though failed to provide scores in ODI’s recently but he has some remarkable achievements in the test career of his. He has been along with Misbah ul Haq, the back bone of Pakistan’s test batting line-up with an healthy average of 50+ he has given scores on regular basis.

Younus has been a typical batsmen, who keeps the scoreboard ticking with singles, doubles and odd boundaries. He has the perfect selection of shots and a quality timing off the ball. You just can’t ignore the man for his contributions to the team. The reason he has been so successful is, he seeks to build a partnership as soon as he gets to crease, creating troubles for the bowling side. With a variety of shots under his belt he can play straight down the drive, sweep the spinners very often, cut or drive when pitched outside the off stump or can even come out of his crease to smack over the in younis-khan-man-of-the-matchfield. He has a liking towards spinners, he plays them elegantly.

 

He has 31 Test hundreds to his name in 104 test matches, at an healthy average of 54. A solid batsmen, who delivers per every test match and can score in any innings, a very special thing about him is he likes to score more in the 3rd or 4th innings of the test match. The harder the conditions the better Younus gets. Also he is among the forth Pakistan batsmen to pass the 300 figure in an innings of a test match against Sri Lanka before the disastrous attack on Sri Lankan squad happened in Lahore. When Pakistan won the 2009 ICC T20 World Cup Younus was the Pakistani Captain who lifted the cup 17 years after Imran’s triumph at the MCG in ’92. Only the third he is after Don Bradman, and Herbert Sutcliffe to have an average of 50 or more in every innings of a test match. He was the first in 50 years to score three consecutive Test hundreds in consecutive innings against Australia two years back. Also he became the first to score 5 centuries in 4th innings of test matches that sure a record!

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Younus Khan goes down for a reverse sweep. Pak v Eng 1st Test Nov 1 2015.

His achievements also includes him being the First Pakistani to reach 9000 Test runs mark and now he is aiming to score 10000 Test runs before he call it a day. He also owns the achievement to have scored a Test ton against every test playing nation and is the twelfth to do so. Younus is regarded as one of the best modern day players of spin. also prone to getting down on one knee and driving the ball extravagantly.

Though Younis’ career has been a roller coaster with lots of up’s and down’s, in the squad, dropped of the squad, but he never lost the faith in himself and kept going to prove his worth in the team. His presence gives a sense of reliability to the team’s middle order. He stables the stumbling batting line up of Pakistan test squad. He has been the go to man since an eternity and he has been very keen on taking the responsibility on his shoulders and fulfilling the captain’s requirements.

Since the departure of Inzamam ul Haq, and Muhammad Yousuf all the responsibilities came on to Younus Khan as him being the senior most batsmen, embraced the responsibility and took every opportunity to score for his team. Off the field he has been a gentlemen and on the field he has a good temperament always smiling around and taking it nice and easy.

There is nothing that you won’t love about the guy. He is a true gentlemen of the game. He stood up for his team whenever his duties were sought by PCB, PCT, or the Captain/Coaching staff. Him being in the team you can hope, he would come and stabilize the situation no matter how worse it gets. He is the guy Pakistani fans have been and will always be counting on.

Jinnah

Many people are born an reformers, many born to be big among the10561737_10201381356615779_2065580929405951498_n.jpg biggest. The aim of such people is not creating name but to do something with which they might always be remembered and ignite a fume of inspiration among their admirers. Such people are to what people who knew them might find crazier than the rest.

Among these inspirational personnel, their is a unique man with a character with a manner of well dressing and to an extent a very neat stature and he is Mr Jinnah. I will quote him as Mr.Jinnah as he was not a man of titles and honors.

“I have lived as plain Mr.Jinnah and I hope to die as plain Mr.Jinnah.
I am very much averse to any titles and honors and I will be more than happy if there was no prefix to my name.” – Muhammad Ali Jinnah

Jinnah’s stature is regarded as one best of his time. He emerged after joining All India Muslim League as the sole re-presenter of Muslim rights in the United India. Although he was declared and hailed as an ambassador of Hindu-Muslim unity in sub-continent as to many politicians, reformers, scholars, poets and writers of that era was essential to earn the locals of Sub continent their rights. He was highly influenced by, western clothing and for that he abandoned the indian clothing. Throughout his life he was impeccably dressed in public and came to own 200 suits in his wardrobes. Even on his death bed he insisted on being formally dressed.

“I will not travel in my pyjamas”

Born into a merchant family, Jinnah was destined to follow his father’s footsteps and look after the family business though he 1101460422_400.jpginsisted on being sent to London with his uncle to learn the trade their. Though, Jinnah’s mind was interested in something different and what inspired him was Study of Law. He enrolled their as law student and went on to become the youngest to become barrister of law. He was a very brilliant of an advocate. After coming back, he became more of an active in politics and joined the Indian National Congress. One unique similarity Gandhi and Jinnah shared and that is their mentor was the same person Gopal Krishna Gokhale. He had great influences on both the leaders. Jinnah aimed himself to be the Muslim Gokhale for subcontinent.

Jinnah was a man with a very well dressed personality, man of principles and a strong character he possessed. He was a very proud person, would come to his office and sit entire day reading the newspaper. He wouldn’t take a case that wasn’t worth his caliber, as he being a big fish would not go for anything lesser than his worth.

Morally being strong Jinnah came into the show in 1913 when he joined the Muslim League after realizing that there is no future for Muslims in United India with Congress. And rose to fame after the famous 14 points which he presented as a reply for Nehru report.
Jinnah shared very different views as of Gandhi’s.

Once read somewhere, when Gandhi was coming to India from South Africa Gokhale asked Jinnah to receive Gandhi at the seaport. When Gandhi came he Jinnah raised his hand to shake with Gandhi, to Gandhi’s amaze he was shocked at Jinnah’s look and dressed. Gandhi asked in Jinnah, “how do you get so much time to dress this well? Being a country living under poverty it’s leaders shouldn’t waste time dressing well”, and joined his hands bid Namaste to Jinnah and went on his way. This incident in the history might be leading to Jinnah’s indifference with Gandhi and the base for Pakistan’s existence.

Began Practice of law in 1897 in Bombay Presidency. One incident a colleague of Mr Jinnah from the Bombay High Court remembered that “Jinnah’s faith in himself was incredible”; he recalled that on being admonished by a judge with “Mr. Jinnah, remember that you are not addressing a third-class magistrate” Jinnah shot back “My Lord, allow me to warn you that you are not addressing a third-class pleader.”

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People had such a terrific and dynamic love for him that even though Jinnah used to publicly deliver speeches in English people came to just listen to him despite having no knowledge of what he spoke they saw it in his eyes that he is speaking the truth.

Mentally and physically Jinnah was so determined for the country Pakistan that after being suffering of tuberculosis (since 1930’s) he didn’t made his ailment to be publicized instead he forced it to remain unveiled as he thought it might be a treat for the political rivalries and it might hurt the cause of Jinnah. Jinnah was a staunch smoker a tin box of Craven “A” cigarettes were at his desk while he work were used to be at his desk and Cuban Cigars he would spend his day smoking 50 a day. The day Jinnah the Greatest revolutionary leader of 20th century for Muslims died a million people were gathered at his funeral. Feelings were not only limited in Pakistan but across the border, the Indian Prime Minister Jawahlal Nehru stated:

” How shall we judge him? I have been very angry with him often during the past years. But now there is no bitterness in my thought of him, only a great sadness for all that has been … he succeeded in his quest and gained his objective, but at what a cost and with what a difference from what he had imagined.”

Jinnah was buried on 12 September 1948 amid official mourning in both India and Pakistan; a million people gathered for his funeral. Indian Governor-General Rajagopalachari cancelled an official reception that day in honour of the late leader. Today, Jinnah rests in a large marble mausoleum, Mazar e Quaid, in Karachi.

In a journal article on Pakistan’s first governor-general, historian R. J. Moore wrote that Jinnah is universally recognised as central to the creation of Pakistan. Wolpert summarises the profound effect that Jinnah had on the world:

Few individuals significantly alter the course of history. Fewer still modify the map of the world. Hardly anyone can be credited with creating a nation-state. Mohammad Ali Jinnah did all three.

“None in history of India was loved so much like Jinnah.”                                                                                                                           (B Russell)

Jinnah’s legacy is Pakistan. Muhammad Ali Jinnah will be remembered in the history books forever. Wherever it would be mentioned about Pakistan, Jinnah would be the first thought on our minds. Jinnah is loved in Pakistan as much as George Washington is loved in USA.

The Elegance of Kumar

 

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Sangakkara after a Hundred, raising his bat to the crowd

Kumara Chokshanda Sangakkara born in Oct 1977 in Matale, Sri Lanka. Most regarded him

as one of the most Elegant batsmen and according to some he is among the very best the modern cricketing has seen.

Kumar began his career in the early days of 21th Century. Since the very beginning of his International Career he emerged as skilled and reliable middle order batsmen that could make the game turn his team’s side. Along with the exceptional, elegant, and skilled left handed batting from him we also know of his great reputation behind the stumps. He has kept wickets for Lankans in all formats of the game whether it be Tests, ODI’s or the t20I’s.

He has alongside Mahela Jayawardene changed the cricketing structure in Sri Lanka. He is someone you can rely on, when stuck between a crucial run chase, or setting a target to the opposing team. Scored without any hesitancy all across the globe. He can be relied upon in any situation.

Kumar along with batting up the order, keeping the wickets also captained the Sri Lanka team for few years and even lead them to the World Cup final in 2011 which they lost against India. Also lead his side to 2009 T20I World Cup Final against Pak at Lords which they lost due to Afridi’s match winning knock.

Kumar was God-gifted as a batsmen he could play shots anywhere and make his strokes as he would slowly generate pace towards the end of the innings. He could bat an entire day.. when batting in a test match (as you can see by his 11 Double hundreds in 138 Test Matches). In the last 15 years Kumar evolved as a batsmen and emerged as the Second leading run scorer in International Cricket after Sachin Tendulkar. Sanga, had been a Cricket Icon and has been responsible for lots of records such as 11 double Hundreds in Test Career which is 2nd most after Bradman’s 12, The fastest to 8000, 9000, 11000 and 12000 runs in Test Cricket, He was awarded as  the ICC Cricketer of the Year in 2012, Test Cricketer of the Year in 2012, and ODI Cricketer of the Year multiple times in 2011 and 2013. He has also won the LG People’s Choice Award twice, in 2011 and 2012.

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Kumar Sangakkara gestures to the crowd as teammates carry him around the pitch in a lap of honour as farewell to the wonderful career of his

And elected leading Cricketer in World in 2015 edition of Wisden. He is leading ODI run scorer for Sri Lanka and also holds the most dismissals by wicket keeper, breaking Gilchrist’s 472 dismissals.  He is among a few to have scored a hundred in tests against all test playing nations. Scored 12400 Runs in 134 test matches at an healthy aggregate of 57.40, including a Triple Hundred right at the peak and end of his career. The Only man to have scored 150+ scores in four consecutive Tests or be a Hundred at Lord’s. The most remarkable effort of his in the last year of his career is to have been scored four consecutive Hundreds in World Cup in 2015 against Bangladesh, England, Australia and Scotland respectively. Another World Cup record that he holds is the most dismissals in World Cup career (54 in 25 matches).

When considering total runs scored in all forms of the game, Sangakkara is second only to Indian Sachin Tendulkar, where Sangakkara scored 28,016 international runs and Tendulkar has scored 34,357 international runs. I might say, had he played two more years the way he was batting since past few years Tendulkar might have felt his record in danger. Kumar was in hell of a form, with runs coming off his bat nearly every match. He was in such a good form that he would come and deliver a big score. He was a gentlemen, sure he was to the game. His contributions, I have shared only a few of those but his name is far bigger than any other cricketer.

Sangakkara retired from t20I’s by winning his side the world cup final against the MSD led India. He had hoped his side to win the World Cup in Australia but Proteas were too good for his team, Sanga was all set to score a fifth massive consecutive hundred but his team were thwarted by the deVilliers led SA and he after a fighting knock got out for well fought 45 (Even the Heavens poured that moment). He ended his career on a high note with all of the World admiring the Maestro of modern day Cricket.

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Sanga shot after Sanga Cover Drive for Dhaka Dynamites.

Though he played a few test matches against Pak and Ind later that year, and retired in August the same year. He has been a great match winner for his team and the back bone of their batting line up for more than a decade. He has scored against all the opponents and all across the globe.

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Sangakkara after a Hundred, raising his bat to the crowd

The elegance of Kumara Sangakkara cover drive that shot making that stroke play and display of skill won’t be compared to any other batsmen. He was simply different from the rest. Kumar’s ability to play spin was inevitable. He could read the ball from the very hands of the bowler. The difficult was his wicket, and the key to victory was to get Sanga’s wicket cheaply.

His records shows his brilliance. He has been the Most Elegant batsmen the World would ever see. His magic still lives in him after 5 years of retirement you can see as he played for Shane’s Warriors v/s Sachin’s Blasters in America being the leading run scorer of the series. In BPL 3rd Edition where he was the leading run scorer scoring 300+ runs.

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The foundation, the resistance, the elegant and watchful stroke play and above all a gentlemen who contributed and retired rather some might say was sooner for Sri Lanka.

 

I might reckon it was not his time to bid farewell to the one thing he was destined to be Master of that was batting. Kumar’s fascinating knock at Lord’s was and will always be remembered as the only thing that he needed in his records.

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A 1st Lord’s Century to savour for Kumar Sangakkara

“Retiring from cricket is not about form. I feel that the time is now and it’s right. I’ve tried to give everything I have when I’ve played the game; the game goes on. You can’t hold onto it and people shouldn’t be too sentimental. I think a lot better players and greater players have gone, and the game has gone on and there are new players who take the mantle, and in my case it won’t be any different.” #SangaSignsOff

Bureaucracy in Pakistan (Civil Servants)

What is Bureaucracy?

The term “bureaucracy” is French in origin, Bureaucracyand combines the French word bureau – desk or office – with the Greek word κράτος kratos – rule or political power.

It was coined in the mid-18th century by the French economist Jacques Claude Marie Vincent de Gournay and was a satirical pejorative from the outset. Gournay never wrote the term down, but was later quoted at length in a letter from a contemporary:

The late M. de Gournay…sometimes used to say: “We have an illness in France which bids fair to play havoc with us; this illness is called bureaumania.” Sometimes he used to invent a fourth or fifth form of government under the heading of “bureaucracy.”

— Baron von Grimm

The first known English-language use dates to 1818.[16] Here, too, the sense was pejorative, with Irish novelist Lady Morgan referring to “the Bureaucratie, or office tyranny, by which Ireland has so long been governed.”

… Civil Service is the back-bone of the State [of Pakistan] . Governments are formed. Governments are defeated; Prime Ministers come and go; Ministers come and go; but you stay on, and therefore, there is a very great responsibility placed on your shoulders …
— Muhammad Ali JinnahFounder of Pakistan 

The civil Bureaucracy is a colonial legacy in this part of the world. The British used to rule the native population through Indian Civil Service(ICS) and most of the officers in ICS were British themselves. It was in the early 20th Century that the Indians also started competing against the British and many Indians eventually made it to the ICS. With time the independence of Pakistan in 1947, the term ‘Central Superior Services’ was used in Pakistan and the concept of All-Pakistan Services continued. The latter consisted of the Civil Service of Pakistan and the Police Service of


Role Of Bureaucracy in Pakistan

PAKISTAN emerged on the world’s map as a sovereign and independent state on August 14, 1947. It is the outcome of a charismatic leadership of Quaid-i-Azam Muhammad Ali Jinnah, Allama Muhammad Iqbal and immense sacrifices of the Muslims of Sub-continent. To make this country a prosperous, peaceful and stable state of the world the whole responsibility comes on the shoulders of each segment of society govtofPakistan-officialsdeployment_4-4-2013_95196_lincluding Legislators, Armed forces, civil servants, educationists, students, business community, workers, lawyers and the common public. As far as the civil bureaucracy is concerned, the founder of the nation Quaid-i-Azam gave a roadmap of what he believed was the foremost duty of these bureaucrats. He mentioned. ‘‘Come forward as servants of Islam, organize people economically, socially, educationally and politically and I am sure that you will be a power that will be accepted by everybody.”

The German sociologist, Max Webber, says: “highly trained bureaucratic experts will prevail against the less expert Ministers who ostensibly run the administrative units, the Cabinet which ostensibly guides over any policy and the Legislature which ostensibly makes policy”. It is the bureaucratic group who has been, along with the military generals, formulating the policies and form political as well as an ideological framework of Pakistan. The Quaid addressed in April 1944:“These Ministers are, truly speaking; your servants and you are their virtual masters. You have got the key to remove them from their Ministerial giddy, if they no longer remain alive to their responsibilities.”

Being permanently in office, unlike the politicians, who come and go at their behest, it is they who have the power to actually govern the state as an administrative group. The Quaid addressed to civil officers in April 1948: “The services are the backbone of the state. Governments are formed. Governments are defeated. Prime Ministers come and go, Ministers come and go, but you have to stay on. Therefore, there is a very great responsibility placed on your shoulders. You should have no hand in supporting this political party or that political party, this political leader or that political leader. This is not your business.”

The golden principles stated above, by the father of the nation, bear witness to the great role of Civil Bureaucrats in Pakistan. On many occasions he reminded this cadre, the critical role they have to accomplish. He warned against the ‘‘evils” of bribery, corruption, black-marketing, nepotism and jobbery which he wanted to be eradicated with an “iron hand”. To grapple with the modern challenges, they must make major efforts to solve the resultant crisis prudently. Indeed, civil bureaucracy is the backbone of Pakistan as it runs the affairs of the state. It is such a pedestal on which the whole edifice of the state rests. To keep the wheels of the country moving bureaucrats must be bold to counter the existential challenges on every miserable front. Pakistan has inherited the bureaucratic structure and procedures from the British colonial master.

It exists on the basis of rules, regulations and Constitutional provisions. Unfortunately, since 1947, both the civil and militarybureaucracies have been taking their turns which has been detrimental to the interests of the country. Zulfikar Ali Bhutto introduced administrative reforms in 1973. It was a milestone in the civil services of Pakistan. It is worth mentioning; unless civil bureaucracy is fully empowered the country cannot progress properly. If the civil bureaucrats get emancipation of being politicised or militarized by the successive governments, similarly, if the major decisions like foreign policy, economicdevelopment, fiscal arrangement, internal security etc. are being taken by the civil bureaucrats, then absolutely, they can run the system in an organized and well considered manner. To cut a long story short, it is now indispensable for these bureaucrats to abide by the teachings of Quaid-i-Azam and play a creditable role to build a modern, Islamic, consolidated and democratic Pakistan.


The Politics Of Civil Service Reforms In Pakistan.

Over the course of the past six decades, the so-called steel frame of the civil service that Pakistan inherited from colonial India has become decidedly rusty.1 The ineffectiveness of state institutions due to the diminishing capacity, over-politicization and corruption of the bureaucracy and its political masters is seriously undermining Pakistan’s economic, social and political development. In addition the failure of Pakistan’s state institutions to protect the welfare of its citizens, provide adequate social services and promote the rule of law are eroding the legitimacy and stability of the state.

International attention is belatedly focusing on Pakistan as a result of concerns over the destabilizing effects of an increasingly aggressive Taliban-led insurgency in this nuclear-armed state. One result of this attention is the commitment of large amounts of foreign aid by international donors, including $7.5 billion by the U.S. government over the next five years. The rapid increase in foreign aid, however, combined with the decreasing capacity of Pakistan’s state institutions to spend these funds in an effective and accountable manner, are likely to result in much of this aid simply fueling the very corruption that is eating away the legitimacy of state institutions.

This paper argues that, for these large amounts of foreign aid to have significant benefits, the government of Pakistan and its international donors will have to prioritize rebuilding and repairing the dangerously weakened steel frame of the civil service.3 After briefly providing some historical context, the paper outlines some of the main civil service reform priorities. It then discusses some of the political factors and interest groups that have contributed to the very limited reform progress to date. The paper concludes that future progress will not depend on more donor-driven technical assessments of what needs to be done, but rather on better strategies and tactics to address the politics of civil service reform, including creating a broader constituency supporting reform.


Historical Background

Pakistan’s colonial heritage has heavily influenced its political culture as well as its bureaucratic and political institutions.4 For the purposes of this study, the legacy of executive rule by a powerful bureaucracy is particularly worth highlighting. During the 19th and 20th centuries, colonial administrators developed powerful and highly centralized bureaucratic institutions, administered by the famed Indian Civil Service (ICS), to rule the empire. While representative institutions were gradually introduced into colonial India, the role of these elected bodies was to serve as advisory rather than policymaking bodies, and to deal with local administrative matters rather than substantive issues. They were never intended to be democratic institutions that transferred power to elected representatives, but rather were designed to help legitimize and strengthen the authority of the bureaucratic state.5 The power imbalance between the very strong bureaucratic institutions that Pakistan inherited from colonial India and the very weak representative and democratic institutions has been one of the greatest causes of political instability in Pakistan since its independence.

During the six decades since the departure of the last British colonial administrator, Pakistan’s bureaucratic institutions have remained much stronger than its democratic institutions. The concentration of power in the executive branch, usually controlled directly or indirectly by the civil and military bureaucracies, has been at the expense of the legislature as well as the judiciary. Like the elected institutions during the colonial period, Pakistani legislatures have often had little more than an advisory or rubber stamp function, do not usually initiate legislation and serve primarily to legitimize the exercise of power by the executive branch of government. It is the executive, supported by the bureaucracy, that typically initiates legislation, often bypassing the National Assembly altogether by promulgating presidential ordinances.6 The major change that has taken place over time is that the power and influence of the civilian bureaucracy has increasingly been replaced by the power and influence of the military.

A second colonial legacy that still heavily influences Pakistan’s political culture and institutions, as well as its electoral politics, is the institutionalization of patron-client political relationships between the bureaucracy and local elites. In return for patronage—often in the form of land grants, pensions and titles—feudal landlords, religious leaders and tribal and clan leaders were co-opted by colonial administrators to provide political stability and collect revenues. After independence, this direct patron-client relationship between the bureaucracy and local elites strengthened the image of the bureaucracy as the providers of patronage, influence and security and undermined the development of political parties that normally would have played this intermediary role.7 The bureaucracy’s important role as patron also contributed to the desire of every family to have one member employed in government service to serve as a problem-solver and provider of patronage.


Civil Service Reform Priorities

The limited progress on civil service reform in Pakistan has not been due to a lack of knowledge about what needs to be done. Over the course of the past sixty years there have been more than twenty studies on administrative reform prepared by various government committees or commissions (including six since 1996), that have clearly identified the most serious problems.8 Instead, the lack of progress is due primarily to political factors and ineffective political strategies for pushing through reforms. The following section briefly examines some of the major civil service reform priorities in Pakistan and describes some of the political factors that have contributed to the lack of progress in addressing them.

Reducing the Politicization of the Bureaucracy

From 1947 to 1971 the civilian bureaucracy played the dominant role in Pakistan’s policymaking and as such was insufficiently controlled or influenced by elected politicians. During this period, there was limited scope for interference from politicians as the bureaucracy, particularly the elite Civil Service of Pakistan (CSP), maintained control over the selection, training and posting of its members and was therefore able to retain its institutional autonomy.9 The student demonstrations and political unrest that led to the collapse of General Ayub Khan’s regime in 1969, followed by the bloody civil war that resulted in the creation of Bangladesh in 1971, seriously undermined the political strength and legitimacy of both the civil and military bureaucracies. Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto exploited this weakness after coming to power in 1971 and set out to redress the power imbalance between the elected and unelected institutions of the state. As the following quote demonstrates, he was particularly vocal in castigating the civil service and blaming it for many of the country’s ills:

No institution in the country has so lowered the quality of our national life as to what is called Naukarshahi [bureaucratic rule]. It has done so by imposing a caste system on our society. It has created a class of ‘Brahmins’ or mandarins, unrivalled in its snobbery and arrogance, insulated from life of the people and incapable of identifying itself with them.

Civil Services have become the key wheels on which the entire engine of the state has to move. Hence the leaders for these services are drawn through the competitive examination. The officers thus appointed are bestowed with solemn responsibilities and are scheduled to hold the highest offices of the country.

Pakistan today needs young men and women, with qualities of both head and heart. To choose only such balanced individuals is the purpose of the civil services examination.

So if you have intelligence, intellect, team-spirit, leadership qualities, commonsense, originality, communication skills and have a dynamic personality, then Civil Service is waiting for you. Join Civil Service of Pakistan through CSS examination.

Your country needs you.
You, only you can bring a change.